This study presents results from the Survey on Tobacco Consumption in Southeastern European countries (STC-SEE) conducted in Serbia in 2019. The survey was conducted in six SEE countries between September and October of 2019 on individuals aged between 18 and 85 as a part of the project “Accelerating Progress on Effective Tobacco Tax Policies in Low- and Middle-Income Countries” funded by the University of Illinois at Chicago’s (UIC) Institute for Health Research and Policy.
Consumption of tobacco products in Serbia is widespread, especially of manufactured cigarettes. Smoking prevalence has been decreasing over the years, but it is still high at 37.3 percent according to the latest official reports (Institute of Public Health of Serbia Batut, 2018). Smokers in Serbia do not easily quit, since only 12.6 percent have successfully quit (Institute of Public Health of Serbia Batut, 2018). The Law on the Protection of the Population from Exposure to Tobacco Smoke (Government of Serbia, 2010) was adopted in 2010; however, evidence shows that its effects have been rather limited (Kosic et al., 2017). According to the latest Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) report for Serbia, smoking prevalence among youth aged 13 to 15 is 16.2 percent, with 16.5 percent of boys and 15.9 percent of girls smoking (Ministry of Health of the Republic of Serbia/Institute of Public Health of Serbia Batut, 2018). The most concerning fact from GYTS is the ease of access to tobacco products for youth, even though the Law on Tobacco (Government of Serbia, 2005) prohibits the sale of tobacco products to minors.
Adult Tobacco Consumption in Serbia, 2019 - download here
This study is part of the regional Survey on Tobacco Consumption in Southeastern European Countries (STC-SEE) conducted in 2019, and this report presents the results for Albania. The study population included 1,000 adults from 18 to 85 years of age who consider Albania to be their primary place of residence. The sample was designed based on the latest census in Albania, which was conducted in 2011. In order for the study sample to be nationally representative as well as to provide a proper illustration by gender, age group, education, and type of residence (urban versus rural), the sampling procedure was calibrated by following a three-stage sample design.
The survey was based on the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), International Tobacco Control (ITC), and Pricing Policies and Control of Tobacco in Europe (PPACTE) questionnaires. In addition to sociodemographic characteristics, respondents were asked about their consumption patterns (past and current) for various types of tobacco products, age of smoking initiation, cessation, and attitudes towards tobacco control policies.
National Study Albania 2020 - download here.
Tobacco use is a primary health risk factor across the globe, including in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH). There are various tobacco control policies in place in BiH, but one of the most significant is tobacco taxation. Previous research on tobacco use and tobacco taxation in BiH was based on available data from Household Budget Surveys (HBS) or the relevant Public Health Institutes and Ministries of Health (Petković et al., 2018). However, for evidence-based policymaking, there is a serious lack of comprehensive data on tobacco use in BiH.
To address this gap, in 2019, the regional network of researchers on tobacco taxation in Southeastern Europe (SEE), coordinated by the Institute of Economic Sciences in Belgrade, Serbia, conducted a Survey on Tobacco Consumption in SEE countries (STC-SEE) collecting data on adult tobacco use in Albania, BiH, Kosovo, Montenegro, North Macedonia, and Serbia. The questionnaire for STC-SEE was based on three existing global surveys: 1) the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS); 2) the International Tobacco Control (ITC) survey; and 3) the Pricing Policies and Control of Tobacco in Europe (PPACTE) survey. The survey in BiH was conducted based on a sample of 1,000 adult (18 to 85 years of age) residents, and the sampling frame was based on data from the latest census in BiH (2013). The survey collected information on the use of various tobacco products, smoking behavior, prices and brands of tobacco products purchased, exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS), attitudes towards different tobacco control policies, and exposure to advertising of tobacco products.
National Study Bosnia and Herzegovina 2020 - download here.
Democracy Plus (D+) has conducted a survey on tobacco use among adults in Kosovo as part of the regional Survey on Tobacco Consumption in Southeastern European Countries (STC-SEE).
The survey was conducted in six SEE countries, including Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, North Macedonia, Montenegro, and Serbia. It was coordinated by the Institute of Economic Sciences (IES) in Belgrade and funded by the University of Illinois at Chicago’s (UIC) Institute for Health Research and Policy.
National Study Kosovo 2020 - download here.
The survey on tobacco use among adults in Montenegro was part of the regional Survey on Tobacco Consumption in Southeastern European Countries (STC-SEE) which was conducted during September and October of 2019 and captured all relevant information related to tobacco demand, supply, control, and price policies.
The interviews were conducted face-to-face in respondents’ homes and included 1,000 adults from 18 to 85 years of age. The sampling frame was based on the latest census in Montenegro, conducted in 2011. The data were weighted according to five factors leading to a representative sample in terms of geo-economic region, type of residence (urban or rural), age group, gender, and level of education.
Albania has one of the highest tobacco consumption prevalences in the region (WHO, 2016). According to the WHO, the number of tobacco smokers is 683,440, dominated by male consumers. The smoking prevalence by gender is 51.2% for males and 7.6% for females.
Smokers account for 29% of the adult population, with a mean number of cigarettes smoked per day per smoker at about 18.7 (as of 2012). This fgure is lower as compared to 2005, when the mean number of cigarettes smoked per day per smoker was 20.7.
Meanwhile, the per capita consumption of cigarette sticks is estimated at 1,116/year. Tobacco consumption is a major problem for Albania with respect to underage tobacco consumption. According to the Tobacco Atlas, more than 1000 children of ages 10-14 use tobacco daily. The number of children under the age of 18 years that consume tobacco each day is even higher, around 15,000 children (WHO, 2014).
The central question of this study was to determine the relationship between tobacco taxation and tobacco consumption in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH). This report is the frst of its kind, providing a comprehensive examination of the tobacco industry in (BiH) and an estimate of the impact of tobacco price on consumption.
Tobacco consumption continues to be prevalent among a large percentage of BiH citizens. According to ofcial statistics, more than 40% of the country’s adults, about 1,200,600 people, consume tobacco product on a daily basis. Thus, BiH is among the top 10 countries in the world for cigarette consumption, after Montenegro, Belarus, Lebanon, Macedonia, Russia, Slovenia, Belgium, Luxembourg, and China (MarketWatch, 2014).
Smoking prevalence in BiH is close to 40% with a signifcant diﬀerence between men (46.9%) and women (28.5%). The gender gap has diminished over time, as the smoking prevalence has been increasing among women. Tobacco use among females, as well as among youth, is possibly a response to an increasing level of tolerance towards smoking in BiH. Among youth, tobacco use prevalence for girls (9.7%) is signifcantly lower than boys (15.5%).
Disparities in smoking follow noticeably diﬀerent patterns across social classes. There is a strong socioeconomic gradient in smoking, with more fnancially secure people in BiH less likely to smoke. Additional factors that likely contribute to the high level of smoking prevalence in BiH are an easy access to tobacco products, their aﬀordability, and diﬀerent forms of illicit trade of tobacco.
The Republic of Croatia is geographically situated in the southeastern part of Europe and has a population of 4.1 million. However, since the mid-20th century, the population in Croatia has been decreasing. With the average population density of 73.8 per km, Croatia is one of the more sparsely populated European countries. According to the World Bank country classifcations by income level, Croatia is considered to be a high-income country.
Kosovo had a rather large tobacco industry from the 1960s until the early 1990s, when it had a major impact on its economy. The tobacco factory “Industria e Duhanit Gjilan– IDGJ” was one of the largest in the former Yugoslavia. Its economic impact was mainly felt in the Anamorava region, particularly in the city of Gjilan, where the tobacco industry had 800 employees, created 50,000 seasonal jobs and engaged over 10,000 farmers.
However, the tobacco industry in Kosovo was short-lived. From the late 1990s and beginning of 2000, Kosovo ceased manufacturing any of tobacco products. This meant that all tobacco products in Kosovo have since been imported, and local farming is minimal or irrelevant for the national tobacco market.
Kosovo is considered to be a country with a high smoking prevalence, even though the Kosovo Agency of Statistics (KAS) estimates that it is only at the level of 16% of population above 16 years old. Alternative estimates from other studies show that smoking prevalence is as high as 28% (see page 15). A more realistic view may come from Kosovo Customs data on the volume (up 4.5 tons in kg of tobacco products per year) and value (up to €60 million per year) of the imported tobacco products.
The Republic of Macedonia has a long history and tradition of cultivating and exporting raw tobacco, especially the Oriental type of tobacco. As such, Macedonia is one of the major raw tobacco leaf and fnished cigarettes producing countries in the region.
In this document, we analyze the specifc characteristics of tobacco cultivation in Macedonia, supply and demand of tobacco and tobacco products, tobacco industry and tobacco products market and tobacco control policies, including taxation. Most of Macedonia’s cigarette consumption comes from domestic production, while cigars, cigarillos and smoking tobacco are imported. In addition to domestically manufactured cigarette brands, some are imported.
Based on the size of the market and data provided by the Ministry of Finance, Central Registry of Macedonia, State Statistical Ofce of Macedonia and other sources, we discuss the supply and demand on the tobacco market, as well as the eﬀects of national policies, including taxation, excise tax and value added tax (VAT) on tobacco product prices and consumption levels. The domestic production and import-export data from the MAK STAT database of the State Statistical Ofce of Macedonia are also included.
Montenegro is a small, Central Mediterranean country in Southeast Europe, on the Balkan Peninsula, with a coastline at the Adriatic Sea. It covers an area of 13,812 km2, with 295 km long coast and 72 km of beaches. The population counts 620,029 people (Survey of 2011). The largest city and capital of Montenegro is Podgorica, home to approximately 185,937 people or 1/3 of country’s entire population.
The tobacco market and industry consist of: importers and exporters of tobacco, wholesalers, retailers, tobacco producers and tobacco manufacturers. Production of tobacco products (raw and fnal goods) has a marginal share in the structure of agricultural production in Montenegro. Until 2000, the production of tobacco had a high share on the market. But since then, the level of tobacco growing as well as cigarette production has reduced.
The reduction has occurred mainly due to the dominance of new cigarette brands that are based on a mixture of diﬀerent sorts of tobacco and the 2016 liquidation of Montenegro’s main domestic producer Duvanski kombinat Podgorica (DKP) after 113 years of existence. Additionally, because of the market size, it was unproftable for foreign investors to enter the market. Consequently, the number of households that grow raw tobacco, as well as the number of employees in the tobacco manufacturing sector, has dropped signifcantly.
Serbia is located in the Southeastern Europe region, classifed as an upper-middle-income country according to the World Bank ranking.
The country covers a total of 88,361 km2 with a total population of 7,020,858 inhabitants and has one of the oldest populations in the world (average age of 42.9 years, mortality rate continually exceeding the birth rate). The tobacco market and industry in Serbia are highly regulated.
There exist seven major groups in the sector: tobacco producers, tobacco processors, tobacco manufacturers, wholesalers, retailers, importers and exporters of tobacco, processed tobacco, and/or tobacco products.